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REVIEW: Targets of Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressors: Key for Understanding Basic Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis

B. P. Kopnin

Institute of Carcinogenesis, Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Kashirskoe Shosse 24, Moscow, 115478 Russia; fax: (095) 324-1739; E-mail: kopnin@imb.ac.ru

Received September 17, 1999
Changes in expression of protooncogenes and tumor suppressor genes play a key role in oncogenesis. Dysfunction of their protein products leads to abnormal regulation of signaling pathways, which control the cell cycle, apoptosis, genetic stability, cell differentiation, and morphogenetic reactions. Changes in these important physiological processes are obviously responsible both for initial steps of neoplastic cell transformation and for determination of subsequent tumor progression resulting in the development of malignant tumors.
KEY WORDS: oncogene, tumor suppressor, apoptosis, genetic stability, differentiation