* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received January 20, 2015; Revision received March 2, 2015
The scientific basis for producing luminescent biosensors containing free and immobilized luminescent bacteria is discussed. Modern technologies for engineering target objects, procedures used to immobilize bacteria in different carriers, as well as procedures for integral and specific biodetection of toxins are presented. Data regarding generation and application of biomonitoring for ecotoxicants derived from natural and genetically engineered photobacterial strains are analyzed. Special attention is given to immobilization of photobacteria in polyvinyl alcohol-containing cryogel. The main physicochemical, biochemical, and technological parameters for stabilizing luminescence in immobilized bacteria are described. Results of the application of immobilized photobacterial preparations both during discrete and continuous biomonitoring for different classes of ecotoxicants are presented.
KEY WORDS: bioluminescence, biomonitoring, luminescent bacteria, biosensors, immobilization, gels, polyvinyl alcohol