2Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Biology, 119991 Moscow, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received July 17, 2016; Revision received August 19, 2016
Acute diseases of the respiratory tract are often caused by viral pathogens and accompanying secondary bacterial infections. It is known that the development of such bacterial complications is caused mainly by a decreased infiltration with immune system cells and by suppressed inflammation in the lungs. There are significant advances in understanding the mechanisms of secondary infections, although many details remain unclear. This review summarizes current knowledge of the molecular and cellular changes in the host organism that can influence the course of bacterial coinfections in the respiratory tract.
KEY WORDS: secondary bacterial coinfection, influenza, bacteria, pneumonia, macrophages, Toll-like receptors