2Lomonosov Moscow State University, Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, 119991 Moscow, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received September 21, 2016
Mast cells are a heterogeneous multifunctional cellular population that promotes connective tissue homeostasis by slow release of biologically active substances, affecting primarily the permeability of vessels and vascular tone, maintenance of electrolyte and water balance, and composition of the extracellular matrix. Along with this, they can rapidly release inflammatory mediators and chemotactic factors that ensure the mobilization of effector innate immune cells to fight against a variety of pathogens. Furthermore, they play a key role in initiation of allergic reactions. Aggregation of high affinity receptors to IgE (FcεRI) results in rapid degranulation and release of inflammatory mediators. It is known that reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate in intracellular signaling and, in particular, stimulate production of several proinflammatory cytokines that regulate the innate immune response. In this review, we focus on known molecular mechanisms of FcεRI-dependent activation of mast cells and discuss the role of ROS in the regulation of this pathway.
KEY WORDS: mast cells, degranulation, reactive oxygen species, FcεRI-signaling