2St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received October 22, 2016; Revision received November 29, 2016
This review analyzes recent data on mechanisms of cerebral hypoxia and the protective methods of hypoxic and ischemic postconditioning, as well as their interrelationship with the key mechanisms responsible for neuroprotection and neuroplasticity. Upregulation of expression of antiapoptotic factors and neurotrophins and modulation of activity of several protein kinases and transcription factors such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) are considered as the most important aspects in the neuroprotective potential of postconditioning. The presented information indicates substantial transformative promise of the noninvasive techniques of hypoxic postconditioning as well as significant similarity between the adaptive pathways activated by various postconditioning methods, which are far from being fully understood.
KEY WORDS: hypoxia/ischemia, neuropathology, ischemic postconditioning, hypoxic postconditioning, neuroplasticity