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REVIEW: Next-Generation Antibiotics, Bacteriophage Endolysins, and Nanomaterials for Combating Pathogens

I. G. Shemyakin1, V. V. Firstova1,a*, N. K. Fursova1, I. V. Abaev1, S. Yu. Filippovich2, S. G. Ignatov1, and I. A. Dyatlov1

1State Research Center for Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 142279 Obolensk, Moscow Region, Russia

2Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Research Center of Biotechnology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119071 Moscow, Russia

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received July 12, 2020; Revised September 14, 2020; Accepted September 14, 2020
This review presents various strategies to fight causative agents of infectious diseases. Species-specific programmable RNA-containing antibiotics open up new possibilities for creating next-generation of personalized drugs based on microbiome editing and can serve as a new tool for selective elimination of pathogenic bacterial species while keeping intact the rest of microbiota. Another promising approach in combating bacterial infections is genome editing using the CRISPR-Cas systems. Expanding knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of innate immunity has been actively used for developing new antimicrobials. However, obvious risks of using antibiotic adjuvants aimed at activation of the host immune system include development of the autoimmune response with subsequent organ damage. To avoid these risks, it is essential to elucidate action mechanisms of the specific ligands and signal molecules used as components of the hybrid antibiotics. Bacteriophage endolysins are also considered as effective antimicrobials against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, metabolically inactive persisters, and microbial biofilms. Despite significant advances in the design of implants with antibacterial properties, the problem of postoperative infections still remains. Different nanomodifications of the implant surface have been designed to reduce bacterial contamination. Here, we review bactericidal, fungicidal, and immunomodulating properties of compounds used for the implant surface nanomodifications, such as silver, boron nitride nanomaterials, nanofibers, and nanogalvanic materials.
KEY WORDS: RNA-containing antibiotics, bacterial CRISPR-Cas systems, hybrid antibiotics, endolysins, nanosurfaces

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297920110085