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State 1 and State 2 in Photosynthetic Apparatus of Red Microalgae and Cyanobacteria

Yulia V. Bolychevtseva1,a*, Ivan V. Tropin2, and Igor N. Stadnichuk3,b*

1Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Research Center of Biotechnology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119071 Moscow, Russia

2Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia

3Timiryasev Institute of Plant Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 127726 Moscow, Russia

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received May 13, 2021; Revised June 23, 2021; Accepted June 23, 2021
Imbalanced light absorption by photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) in oxygenic phototrophs leads to changes in interaction of photosystems altering the linear electron flow. In plants and green algae, this imbalance is mitigated by a partial migration of the chlorophyll a/b containing light-harvesting antenna between the two photosystem core complexes. This migration is registered as fluorescence changes of the pigment apparatus and is termed the reverse transitions between States 1 and 2. By contrast, the molecular mechanism of State 1/2 transitions in phycobilisome (PBS)-containing photosynthetics, cyanobacteria and red algae, is still insufficiently understood. The suggested hypotheses – PBS movement along the surface of thylakoid membrane between PSI and PSII complexes, reversible PBS detachment from the dimeric PSII complex, and spillover – have some limitations as they do not fully explain the accumulated data. Here, we have recorded changes in the stationary fluorescence emission spectra of red algae and cyanobacteria in States 1/2 at room temperature, which allowed us to offer an explanation of the existing contradictions. The change of room temperature fluorescence of chlorophyll belonged to PSII was revealed, while the fluorescence of PBS associated with the PSII complexes remained during States 1/2 transitions at the stable level. Only the reversible dissociation of PBS from the monomeric PSI was revealed earlier which implied different degree of surface contact of PBS with the two photosystems. The detachment of PBS from the PSI corresponds to ferredoxin oxidation as electron carrier and the increase of cyclic electron transport in the pigment apparatus in State I.
KEY WORDS: State 1, State 2, phycobilisome(s), fluorescence, photosystem I, photosystem II, chlorophyll

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297921100023