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REVIEW: Role of Glutathione Peroxidases and Peroxiredoxins in Free Radical-Induced Pathologies

Mars G. Sharapov1,a*, Sergey V. Gudkov2,3,4, Vadim Z. Lankin5, and Vladimir I. Novoselov1

1Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142290 Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia

2Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Moscow, Russia

3Institute of Biology and Biomedicine, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, 603022 Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

4All-Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology, 143050 Bolshiye Vyazemy, Russia

5National Medical Research Center of Cardiology, Ministry of Health of Russia, 121552 Moscow, Russia

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received May 27, 2021; Revised September 19, 2021; Accepted September 19, 2021
In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of some socially significant diseases associated with the development of oxidative stress, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and radiation sickness, as well as the possibilities of the therapeutic application of low-molecular-weight natural and synthetic antioxidants for the correction of free radical-induced pathologies. The main focus of this review is the role of two phylogenetically close families of hydroperoxide-reducing antioxidant enzymes peroxiredoxins and glutathione peroxidases – in counteracting oxidative stress. We also present examples of the application of exogenous recombinant antioxidant enzymes as therapeutic agents in the treatment of pathologies associated with free-radical processes and discuss the prospects of the therapeutic use of exogenous antioxidant enzymes, as well as the ways to improve their therapeutic properties.
KEY WORDS: reactive oxygen species, dicarbonyls, peroxiredoxins, glutathione peroxidases, radiation sickness, atherosclerosis, diabetes

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297921110067