* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received February 1, 2022; Revised March 21, 2022; Accepted March 21, 2022
Mechanisms of regulation of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transporter under the action of nitric oxide (NO) were studied in Caco-2 cells. S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) was used as a NO donor, which was added to the cells at concentrations 1, 10, 50, 100, and 500 µM and incubated for 3, 24, or 72 h. The amount of Pgp was analyzed using Western blotting, activity was determined by monitoring transport of its substrate, fexofenadine. The study showed that a short-term exposure to GSNO for 3 h at 500 µM concentration caused increase in the concentration of peroxynitrite in Caco-2 cells, which reduced the activity, but not the amount of Pgp. Increase in the duration of exposure to 24 h increased the amount and activity of Pgp at GSNO concentrations of 10 and 50 µM, increased the amount without increasing activity at 100 µM concentration, and decreased the amount of the transporter protein at 500 µM. Duration of exposure to GSNO of 72 h at concentration of 10 µM resulted in the increase of the amount and activity of Pgp, while at concentration of 100 and 500 µM it decreased the amount of the transport protein. At the same time, it was shown using specific inhibitors that the increase in the amount of Pgp under the influence of low concentrations of GSNO was realized through the NO-cGMP signaling pathway, and the effect of the higher concentration of GSNO and the respective development of nitrosative stress was realized through Nrf2 and the constitutive androstane receptor.
KEY WORDS: P-glycoprotein, ABCB1-protein, nitric oxide, guanylate cyclase, Caco-2 cell line