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Increased Extracellular Sodium Concentration as a Factor Regulating Gene Expression in Endothelium

Dmitry A. Fedorov1,a, Svetlana V. Sidorenko1,b, Alexander I. Yusipovich1,c, Olesya V. Bukach1,d, Andrey M. Gorbunov1,e, Olga D. Lopina1,f, and Elizaveta A. Klimanova1,g*

1Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119234 Moscow, Russia

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received February 17, 2022; Revised April 26, 2022; Accepted April 26, 2022
Hyperosmotic stimulation of endothelial cells often leads to its dysfunction accompanied, among other things, by proinflammatory response. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are not fully understood. It may arise due to increase in the plasma Na+ concentration, due to increase in the extracellular osmolarity, increase in the intracellular Na+i/K+i ratio, and/or change in the cell stiffness. In the present study we investigated the effects of short-term increase in osmolarity of extracellular medium on the mRNA content of some genes important for endothelial function (including Na+i/K+i-sensitive ones) and the equivalent elasticity constant of human umbilical vein endothelial cells membranes. Hyperosmotic stimulation of these cells with NaCl but not mannitol resulted in accumulation of Na+ ions inside the cells despite the Na,K-ATPase activation, and was also accompanied by the decrease in their equivalent elasticity constant. The amount of IL1α mRNA decreased with increasing osmolarity of the extracellular medium, whereas the amount of ATF3, PAR2, and PTGS2 mRNAs increased only in response to the increasing NaCl concentration. At the same time, under the conditions of our experiments, we did not detect changes in the expression of the osmoprotective transcription factor NFAT5. The obtained data indicate that the increase of extracellular Na+ concentration in the physiological range is an independent factor that affects intracellular Na+i/K+i ratio and regulates expression of some genes (in particular, ATF3, PAR2, PTGS2) in endothelial cells.
KEY WORDS: sodium, potassium, Na,K-ATPase, endothelium, transcription regulation

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297922060013