* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received April 3, 2022; Revised May 10, 2022; Accepted May 20, 2022
This review provides a brief description of the structure and transport function of the recently discovered family of retinal-containing Na+-translocating rhodopsins. The main emphasis is put on the kinetics of generation of electric potential difference in the membrane during a single transporter turnover. According to the proposed transport mechanism of Na+-rhodopsin, the driving force for the Na+ translocation from the cytoplasm is the local electric field created by the H+ movement from the Schiff base.
KEY WORDS: Na+-translocating rhodopsin, light energy conversion, retinal, ionic pump, cation transport