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REVIEW: Proteomic Markers and Early Prediction of Alzheimer’s Disease

Natalia V. Zakharova1,a*, Anna E. Bugrova1, Maria I. Indeykina1, Yana B. Fedorova2, Igor V. Kolykhalov2, Svetlana I. Gavrilova2, Evgeny N. Nikolaev3, and Alexey S. Kononikhin3,b*

1Emanuel Institute for Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119334 Moscow, Russia

2Mental Health Research Center, 115522 Moscow, Russia

3Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, 121205 Moscow, Russia

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received April 14, 2022; Revised June 6, 2022; Accepted June 7, 2022
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common socially significant neurodegenerative pathology, which currently affects more than 30 million elderly people worldwide. Since the number of patients grows every year and may exceed 115 million by 2050, and due to the lack of effective therapies, early prediction of AD remains a global challenge, solution of which can contribute to the timely appointment of a preventive therapy in order to avoid irreversible changes in the brain. To date, clinical assays for the markers of amyloidosis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been developed, which, in conjunction with the brain MRI and PET studies, are used either to confirm the diagnosis based on obligate clinical criteria or to predict the risk of AD developing at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the problem of predicting AD at the asymptomatic stage remains unresolved. In this regard, the search for new protein markers and studies of proteomic changes in CSF and blood plasma are of particular interest and may consequentially identify particular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Studies of specific proteomic changes in blood plasma deserve special attention and are of increasing interest due to the much less invasive method of sample collection as compared to CSF, which is important when choosing the object for large-scale screening. This review briefly summarizes the current knowledge on proteomic markers of AD and considers the prospects of developing reliable methods for early identification of AD risk factors based on the proteomic profile.
KEY WORDS: Alzheimer’s disease, protein makers, proteomics, early diagnosis

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297922080089