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Received August 27, 2017; Revision received October 6, 2017
Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), as an anionic surfactant, can induce protein conformational changes. Recent investigations demonstrated different effects of SDS on protein amyloid aggregation. In the present study, the effect of SDS on amyloid aggregation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was evaluated. BSA transformed to β-sheet-rich amyloid aggregates upon incubation at pH 7.4 and 65°C, as demonstrated by thioflavin T fluorescence, circular dichroism, and transmission electron microscopy. SDS at submicellar concentrations inhibited BSA amyloid aggregation with IC50 of 47.5 µM. The inhibitory effects of structural analogs of SDS on amyloid aggregation of BSA were determined to explore the structure-activity relationship, with results suggesting that both anionic and alkyl moieties of SDS were critical, and that an alkyl moiety with chain length≥10 carbon atoms was essential to amyloid inhibition. We attributed the inhibitory effect of SDS on BSA amyloid aggregation to interactions between the detergent molecule and the fatty acid binding sites on BSA. The bound SDS stabilized BSA, thereby inhibiting protein transformation to amyloid aggregates. This study reports for the first time that the inhibitory effect of SDS on albumin fibrillation is closely related to its alkyl structure. Moreover, the specific binding of SDS to albumin is the main driving force in amyloid inhibition. This study not only provides fresh insight into the role of SDS in amyloid aggregation of serum albumin, but also suggests rational design of novel anti-amyloidogenic reagents based on specific-binding ligands.
KEY WORDS: bovine serum albumin, amyloid aggregation, sodium dodecyl sulfate, fatty acid binding sites