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Arguments Against Non-programmed Aging Theories

T. C. Goldsmith

Azinet LLC, Box 239, Crownsville MD, 21032, USA; fax: 1-410-403-2283; E-mail: tgoldsmith@azinet.com

Received June 13, 2013
Until recently, non-programmed theories of biological aging were popular because of the widespread perception that the evolution process could not support the development and retention of programmed aging in mammals. However, newer evolutionary mechanics theories including group selection, kin selection, and evolvability theory support mammal programmed aging, and multiple programmed aging theories have been published based on the new mechanics. Some proponents of non-programmed aging still contend that their non-programmed theories are superior despite the new mechanics concepts. However, as summarized here, programmed theories provide a vastly better fit to empirical evidence and do not suffer from multiple implausible assumptions that are required by non-programmed theories. This issue is important because programmed theories suggest very different mechanisms for the aging process and therefore different mechanisms behind highly age-related diseases and conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and stroke.
KEY WORDS: senescence, ageing, gerontology, biological aging theory

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297913090022