1Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan, 45137-66731, Iran; fax: +98-241-415-3232; E-mail: email@example.com
2Center of Climate Change and Global Warming, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan, 45137-66731, Iran
3Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, P. O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
4Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, Kagurazaka 1-3, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601, Japan
5PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan
6Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Faculty of Science, Photosynthesis Research Center, Okayama University, Okayama, 700-8530, Japan
7Controlled Photobiosynthesis Laboratory, Institute of Plant Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Botanicheskaya 35, 127276 Moscow, Russia; fax: +7-496-7330-532; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
8Institute of Basic Biological Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142290 Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received December 18, 2013; Revision received January 15, 2014
Cyanobacteria, algae, and plants are the manufacturers that release O2 via water oxidation during photosynthesis. Since fossil resources are running out, researchers are now actively trying to use the natural catalytic center of water oxidation found in the photosystem II (PS II) reaction center of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms to synthesize a biomimetic supercatalyst for water oxidation. Success in this area of research will transcend the current bottleneck for the development of energy-conversion schemes based on sunlight. In this review, we go over the structure and function of the water-oxidizing complex (WOC) found in Nature by focusing on the recent advances made by the international research community dedicated to achieve the goal of artificial water splitting based on the WOC of PS II.
KEY WORDS: manganese, calcium, nano-sized manganese–calcium cluster, oxygen, photosynthesis, water oxidation, water-oxidizing complex