2Skolkovo Institute for Science and Technology, 143025 Skolkovo, Moscow Region, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received February 15, 2016; Revision received March 17, 2016
Genome sequencing now progressing much faster than our understanding of the majority of gene functions. Studies of physiological functions of various genes would not be possible without the ability to manipulate the genome. Methods of genome engineering can now be used to inactivate a gene to study consequences, introduce heterologous genes into the genome for scientific and biotechnology applications, create genes coding for fusion proteins to study gene expression, protein localization, and molecular interactions, and to develop animal models of human diseases to find appropriate treatment. Finally, genome engineering might present the possibility to cure hereditary diseases. In this review, we discuss and compare the most important methods for gene inactivation and editing, as well as methods for incorporation of heterologous genes into the genome.
KEY WORDS: transgenosis, knockout, knockin, genome engineering, homologous recombination, integration, zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), TALEN, CRISPR