2Skryabin Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology, Department of Biology and Pathology Domestic, Laboratory and Exotic Animals, 109472 Moscow, Russia
3Lomonosov Moscow State University, Institute of Mitoengineering, Pathology Department, 119991 Moscow, Russia
4Principle Clinical Military Hospital of the Russian Federation, 143040 Golitsyno, Moscow Region, Russia
5Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Institute of Molecular Medicine, 119991 Moscow, Russia
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received July 27, 2016; Revision received September 1, 2016
Perioperative dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common ocular complication of long-term general anesthesia. Chronic DES can lead to permanent damage to the cornea and disturbance of visual function, up to total loss of vision. Here, a relationship between the duration of general anesthesia and the risk of chronic DES in patients was demonstrated. Using an experimental model of perioperative corneal abrasions in rabbits, it was found that introduction of animals to 3-h general anesthesia resulted in clinically significant chronic damage to the cornea in 50% of cases. The development of the complication was not associated with irreversible or long-term impairment of tear secretion, but it was accompanied by a decrease in tear film stability and growth of the total protein content as well as decrease in total antioxidant activity of the tear induced by low molecular weight antioxidants. In addition, anesthesia-induced changes in activity of tear antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase and enzymes providing homeostasis of reduced glutathione (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase) were observed. All these alterations were protracted (up to 1-2 weeks) and therefore might account for transition of the perioperative DES into the chronic form. These findings can be useful in the development of novel approaches for the prevention and treatment of chronic forms of DES in the postanesthetic period.
KEY WORDS: general anesthesia, dry eye syndrome, corneal abrasion, tear secretion, tear film stability, tear proteins, tear antioxidant activity, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase