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REVIEW: Latent Inflammation and Defect in Adipocyte Renewal as a Mechanism of Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance

A. V. Vorotnikov1,a#*, I. S. Stafeev1,b#*, M. Yu. Menshikov1, M. V. Shestakova2, and Ye. V. Parfyonova1

1Institute of Experimental Cardiology, National Medical Research Center of Cardiology, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, 121552 Moscow, Russia

2Diabetes Institute, National Medical Research Center of Endocrinology, 117036 Moscow, Russia

# These authors contributed equally to this work.

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received June 25, 2019; Revised August 9, 2019; Accepted August 10, 2019
Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome and an essential medical and social problem. In the first part of the review, we briefly highlight the biochemical basis of metabolic disbalance in obesity and evolution of our views on the mechanisms of insulin resistance development in insulin-sensitive tissues. Because obesity relates to the disturbance in the normal physiology of fat tissue, the second part of the review focuses on latent inflammation that develops in obesity and is supported by immune cells. Finally, the problem of adipocyte hypertrophy, reduced regenerative potential of fat progenitor cells, and impaired renewal of fat depots is discussed in the context of type 2 diabetes pathogenesis.
KEY WORDS: obesity, inflammation, adipose tissue, adipocyte renewal, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes

DOI: 10.1134/S0006297919110099